Wednesday, May 13, 2015

The Maastricht "Seven Step" PBL process
Step 1:       Clarify terms and concepts
Step 2:       Define the problem(s)
Step 3:       Analyse the problem(s) –"Brainstorm"
Step 4:       List of the analysis and possible solutions
Step 5:       Formulate Learning Objectives
Step 6:       Collect additional information focussed on Learning Objectives
Step 7:       Synthesise and present new information
PBL: role of the facilitator
1)      The facilitator must let the students be responsible for their learning.
2)      The facilitator must let the students do the work.
3)      The facilitator has the role of monitoring and evaluating the discussion. Guidance is given in the form of suggestions.
4)      The facilitator has background information concerning the case under discussion.
5)      The facilitator may intervene if the students are not working or if the activity is starting to go in the wrong direction.
6)      The students may ask the facilitator for advice which can be given according to his or her judgement.
Different styles of Facilitators
Autocratic:                 facilitator basically controls all the objectives and activities of the group and keeps intervening to ensure they are carried out.
Laissez-faire:               allows the group to decide what its objectives are, what activities it is engaged in and has minimal input into the session.
Democratic:                collaborates with the group, helping them to agree on a set of objectives and activities and only intervening to keep the group dynamic orientated in a positive direction.
Problem-solving Vs Problem based learning
Problem-solving:   arriving at decisions based on prior knowledge and reasoning
Problem-based learning:            the process of acquiring new knowledge based on recognition of a need to learn

Educational strategy
Traditional discipline-based
Integrated systems-based
Main characteristics
Ø  The focus is on preparatory learning prior to exposure to the problem.
Ø  The staff set the problems (case history problems in a primarily lecture- based format),  and students attempt to resolve them using previously taught curricular content. 
Ø  The problem comes first without, advance readings, lectures, or preparation.
Ø  The problem serves as a stimulus for the need to know.
Ø  Based on their own prior knowledge and the identified gaps in that knowledge, students determine the learning issues within their own group. They then identify and use a variety of learning resources to study these issues and return to the group to discuss and share what they have learned.
Role of the teacher
Content expert
Learning environment
Passive, teacher-centered
Learning becomes dependent upon the self-directed efforts of the small group. This method creates a more active, student-centered learning environment
Who is responsible for directing the learning activities
The student decides what he/she needs to learn

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